Monday, June 30, 2014

PR Professor-Practitioner Relationships Need Mutual Understanding

The 2014 Academic Summit, sponsored by Edelman Public Relations along with PR Week, the University of Notre Dame and DePaul University, is an event that brings together PR professors and practitioners for some engaging discussion. I wasn't in attendance last week, but I did note some tweets from the meeting and one in particular caught my eye.

Richard Edelman, the well known president and CEO of the global PR firm that bears his name, made a comment in his remarks that in effect said professors need to get out more and not just stay in their office writing papers.

I have great respect for Edelman, and have used his firm's annual 'Trust Barometer" as required reading in some of my classes. But, for that reason, I was dismayed that he would imply that academic research is not of value.

I tweeted a question just to clarify. I asked Edelman what academic journals and conference proceedings he reads. It caused several retweets, comments, and even caused the editor of a well-regarded PR journal to snort aloud at the meeting.

Mr. Edelman did not respond to requests for comment.

One other academic at the conference noted that the context was that academic research is valuable, but it needs to be presented in ways that are not so full of academic jargon. That is a good point. It is possible for some academic works to be heavy on theoretical concept buzz words or statistical gymnastics seeming more intended to impress than express.

But on the other hand, the broad-brush assertion that academics "don't get out much" is a little heavy. I know from my own interactions with other PR professors that many have professional experience before getting a PhD and teaching full time. I also know that once they become PR professors, many of them stay very much engaged with the practitioners in the field through conferences like the Academic Summit and other regular interactions ranging from coffee with local pros to faculty externships. And the papers that we academics write are largely based on "getting out" there and studying actual PR practice and consequences. We don't just sit in a campus office and stroke our chins and venture a guess. Some of us, myself included, still practice PR as consultants ourselves, and also take on local clients for class projects where concepts are applied directly.

Methods from content analysis, to focus group, to survey and others are all about engaging real professionals. But academics go beyond reporting raw data and percent response. They look for the reasons behind the response, the cause and effect that is consistent and can be predictive over time. That can be hard to understand because of the methodological mumbo-jumbo or precision required in defining concepts. But if the results can be communicated to practitioners, that is of tremendous value and considerable practical. Indeed, informing the field--of academics and practitioners, and of course our students--should be the reason we do research.

Certainly, academics need to have a solid and grounded--we academics might say valid--understanding of what PR professionals do every day. But professionals, rather than eschewing academic research, theory, and unfamiliar words, should seek to understand it and apply it. This is one reason I'm an advocate of open-access journals, so professionals can access research without needing access to a university library or membership in academic organizations. I applaud PRSA for having its PR Journal available online. And, if you read the previous post on this blog, that is why I do a summary of journal articles for PR pros and students periodically.

At the end of the day, the professor-practitioner relationship can have mutual benefit if we all try to honestly understand each other.

Wednesday, June 11, 2014

From the Journals--Latest Research on Investor Relations, PR Ethics, PR Law, Communication Management

From time to time I catch up on reading a batch of academic journals and like to share a quick overview of some of the articles I find most interesting. Many PR practitioners can benefit from being aware of this research but lots of academic publications are hard to access other than through a university library. Here then are some interesting points from recent research. (Citations provided in case you want to seek out the full article for yourself).

Investor Relations:

Matthew W. Ragas, Alexander V. Laskin, (2014) "Mixed-methods: measurement and evaluation among investor relations officers", Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Vol. 19 (2), pp.166 – 181
The results indicate that IROs strongly (80 percent) believe that mixed-methods (i.e. both quantitative and qualitative methods) should be used to measure the success of investor relations. Mixed-methods advocates place significantly more importance on measurement than IROs that prefer quantitative- or qualitative-only approaches.

Matthew W. Ragas, Alexander V. Laskin, Matthew Brusch, (2014) "Investor relations measurement: an industry survey", Journal of Communication Management, Vol. 18 (2), pp.176 – 192
Respondents strongly rebuked using share price as a valid measure of investor relations performance. A factor analysis revealed that IROs use four factors to measure program success (listed in order of stated importance): first, international C-suite assessment; second, relationship assessment; third, outreach assessment; and fourth, external assessment. IROs at large-cap companies place significantly more importance on both C-suite assessment and relationship assessment than their peers at small-caps.

Ethics:

Patrick Lee Plaisance (2014) “Virtue in Media: The Moral Psychology of US Exemplars in News and Public Relations,” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol 91 (2), pp. 308-325.
This study looks at journalists and public relations professionals who exemplify good moral character and virtue to construct a profile of ethical professionals in these fields. Findings show that they scored higher than peer professionals on the personality traits of extroversion, agreeableness, openness, and conscientiousness. As a group they rejected situational or utilitarian ethical reasoning in favor of a moral absolute approach. Overall, an ethical professional can be described as one who places value on concern for others,  professional duty, and proactive social engagement, all of which demonstrate higher order ethical reasoning.

Steve Mackey (2014) “Virtue Ethics, CSR, and ‘Corporate Citizenship’”, Journal of Communication Management, Vol 18(2), 131-145.
Mackey critiques the PR concept of CSR (corporate social responsibility) and corporate citizenship through the ethical theory of Alasdair MacIntyre, who favors the ancient Greek or Aristotelian notion of character as the only foundation for ethics. He criticizes CSR as being done for strategic reasons and personal corporate benefit rather than as an extension of character. He suggests that PR professionals need to respect and respond to existing social norms and democratic discourse rather than trying to influence them. His points are well laid out, however he tends to have a shallow anti-corporate bias and an assumption of the actual intentions of PR practitioners and collective corporate attitudes and reasons for conducting CSR programs. He cites several PR scholars but does not acknowledge that the notions of two-way symmetrical communication or mutual adjustment based on research in fact are the form of practice he encourages. He also rather naively puts forth government and nonprofit institutions as exemplary of the type of social engagement that would be favored from an ethical standpoint, even though human actors in both of those sectors can lead to greed, selfishness, corruption and unethical behavior as well.

Law:

Cayce Myers and Ruthann Lariscy (2014), “Corporate PR in a post-Citizens United World,” Journal of Communication Management, Vol 18 (2), pp. 146-157.
This is a very interesting and helpful historical review of case law that led up to the Citizens United case, which is in the long line of debate about corporate vs. commercial speech and the recognition of corporations as “persons” in terms of speech rights. In addition to the back and forth arguments and decisions of precedent cases at both lower courts and the Supreme Court, the paper identifies the practical impact of Citizens United on PR practice: 1) corporate PR can now legally include political relations; 2) corporate political issues may take on a more nuanced structure; 3) key publics and tactics will change to include voting blocks, special interest groups and others in the political arena; 4) a changing relationship of public relations departments with the press, particularly an added strain because of the increase in opinion journalism or punditry in political issue coverage.

Communication Management:

Catrin Johnson, Vernon D. Miller, and Colange Hamrin (2014) “Conceptualizing Communicative Leadership: A Framework for Analyzing and Developing Leaders’ Communication Competence,” Corporate Communication: An International Journal, Vol 19 (2), pp. 147-165
Since PR is supposed to be a “management” function, this paper is interesting for identifying four essential communication behaviors of leaders as well as eight principles of “communicative leadership,” a Swedish concept. This is a form of leadership that may or may not be evident in CEOs and other managers, thus making the case that part of a PR professionals role is to counsel management on their communicative leadership, not just their communication. A communicative leader is defined in the paper as: “one who engages employees in dialogue, actively shapes and seeks feedback, practices participative decision making, and is perceived as open and involved.”

Andreas Schwarz and Alexander Fritsch (2014), Communicating on Behalf of Global Civil Society: Management and Coordination of Public Relations In International Nongovernmental Organization, Journal of Public Relations Research, Vol. 26 (2), pp. 161-183.

Most studies of excellent PR management are about corporations, especially in the international context. This paper takes an interesting look at non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and determines that “excellent” NGOs assign more resources to PR and more frequently consider the cultural context in their communication. More specific characteristics of well-managed PR in NGOs include: communications department contributes to strategic planning and decision making, the head of the communications department is part of the senior management team, the communications department reports directly to the most senior manager, and employees from different gender or race have equal opportunities.


Wednesday, May 14, 2014

City to Hire PR Director (Let's Hope They Actually Know PR)

I read with interest this morning that the City of Grand Rapids is looking to hire a communications director, who would be charged according to the MLive article with being a "spokesperson, connecting to citizens, and help craft a long-term public relations strategy."

I think it does make sense for a city the size of Grand Rapids to have a full-time public relations professional aboard. (It may have relied on various PR firms for services in the past, but an in-house practitioner has advantages). I also am happy the term public relations is actually used, as well as the notion that there needs to be a long-term strategy and not just idle "getting the word out."

I do hope, however, that public relations is properly understood, and that the eventual hire has an actual degree and experience in public relations. I am a former journalist myself, but I have been disappointed to see so many institutions hire people for top PR positions who have little to no understanding of what PR actually is. Good writing and a command of the Associated Press (AP) style only get you so far.

Public attitudes about public relations, according to academic research, show that people either (my words here) minimize of demonize the profession. They minimize it by seeing it as merely a spokesperson or media relations job. This is considering WHAT PR people do. They demonize it by thinking all PR people intentionally "spin" or deceive. This is considering HOW PR people do their jobs.

What management thinks PR is, called the dominant coalition schema or worldview, affects how PR is practiced. When management doesn't have a good understanding of PR, they hire people who don't know PR, or they hire people who do understand PR and are quickly frustrated by not being able to practice it to full potential.

I would hope that the "demonizing" perspective is not one held by city leaders. And while there is no doubt that some PR people have jobs focused on media relations, I would hope that city leaders see PR as more than that, and that the "long-term public relations strategy" involves more than a media strategy.

Academics have traditionally broken down PR practice into four models of observed practice. Briefly, one is press agentry/publicity, in which practitioners seek media attention sometimes with dubious methods. The public information model is characterized as more straightforward and using various tactics, not just news media. But it is still limited to one-way communication. (This is a common form of practice in government contexts because of the obligation to communicate with citizens and taxpayers; professionals are often called PIOs--public information officers). The last two models are two-way asymmetric and two-way symmetric. Both are two-way, which means more listening to publics and talking with them, not just to them. Asymmetric communication, though, involves listening primarily to meet the organization's objectives and not allowing the public to initiate conversation. This may make sense in some situations, such as health campaigns. Symmetrical communication means either party can initiate dialogue, and sometimes the organization changes its actions to respond to public concern. Academics and advanced professionals consider this form of PR the most ethical and advanced.

That last paragraph is a lot. But it only scratches the surface of knowledge about what PR is and should be. Seasoned PR professionals know more than communications tactics, but understand research, public segmentation, action planning, measurable objectives, theory-based strategies, persuasion, evaluative methods, and more.

It will be best for city leaders, citizens, other publics and the PR profession if the eventual communications director has a deep grasp of PR and participates in making city decisions, not just communicating them. The city will get the attention it deserves, citizens will feel well served, and PR will not be demonized or minimized, but seen appropriately for its positive role in society.

Friday, March 21, 2014

Big Data Marketing (or just PR)

I just finished reading a book called "Big  Data Marketing: Engage Your Customers More Effectively and Drive Value."  Written by Lisa Arthur, the Chief Marketing Officer at a marketing software company, the 160-page volume is a clearly written prescription for how marketing and communication professionals can simply understand and begin to apply big data in their daily work.

As a side note, someone contacted me about the book via the social site Goodreads . They had noticed I added another big data book to my "to read" list, and contact me to let me know that the author of that book had written the forward to Big Data Marketing. They sent me a copy for free to review. (The other book I still have to read is "Big Data @ Work.")

So big data was at work to promote a book about big data. Are you with me so far?

The central theme of the book is that marketers need to move  from the dark ages to the enlightened age of marketing, embracing the technology and available data to make real-time, strategic decisions. In other words, marketing needs to be more data-driven.

While that seems to make intuitive sense, many organizations have not embraced and used big data. The hurdles Arthur identifies include being trapped in tactical vs strategic marketing, managing marketing manually, data stored in silos vs being shared across an organization, and a simple lack of talent or training in dealing with data.

A big emphasis of the book is that too much data is seen as a "hairball" that is hard to unravel. Arthur predicts that the issue will be handled in four potential structural changes for marketing: unifying the CIO and CMO roles, adding the chief marketing technologist role, creating a chief digital officer to work across the organization, or collaboration with the chief customer experience officer.

The book concludes with a chapter each on the five steps to becoming a data-driven marketing organization: get strategic, tear down silos, untangle the big data hairball, make metrics your mantra, and a new process for  marketing. The latter step of course means a re-naming the traditional "four Ps" of marketing--product, price, place, promotion--to people, processes, performance, and profit.

While I would recommend the book, as a PR professor and practitioner I noticed much in this book touted as "new" for marketing that resonates as rather tried and true PR perspectives. For example, PR people have for years emphasized segmenting publics and not treating all customers the same. Beyond that, PR people don't see customers as the only public, but consider  employees, community, investors, government and many other groups of people whose relationship with the organization is different than fiduciary.

With regard to breaking down silos, the PR scholarship has a concept called the "boundary spanning role" of public relations. It's very purpose is to communicate across internal and external organizational boundaries, or to break down silos. PR  folks have been saying this for years, and it is the main argument why the top PR person should be part of senior management, also called  the "dominant coalition," in order to function in this capacity effectively.

While the volume and variety of data is new in recent years, PR people have for  decades advocated research as a first step for campaigns, following a process known as RACE--research, action plan, communication, and evaluation. Within that process, there are other components that "Big Data Marketing" touts as new. These include measurable objectives (with benchmarks coming from data), defined strategies based on research, and a plan for evaluation, which is what the book stresses as  metrics.

So, the book does have value for anyone trying to get a handle on the buzz about "big data" from a communications perspective. But my reaction to the book was more "of course" than "aha!"

By the way, in my graduate class a book I use is "Communicating for Managerial Effectiveness" by Phil Clampitt. The relevant chapter in this book has a helpful process with which to consider big data. It's called  DIKA--data, information, knowledge, action. The point is that data on its own is not helpful. Information is data that is relevant. Knowledge is information that has meaning. Action is the application of this knowledge to meet organizational goals. It is the communication manager's role to find data and move it toward action.

In the end, I hope any of the books I mention are helpful to my blog readers. But I also hope you don't get blown away by tech jargon about data, and keep in mind the tried and true PR process and perspective are worth applying to the new flood of data and information we all contend with now.

Monday, December 09, 2013

FTC Chimes in on Native Advertising

You can call it "native advertising", "sponsored content," or some other trendy word for the modern iteration of an "advertorial." Whatever you call it, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) may be calling out publishers, as well as advertising and public relations professionals, if they don't make it obvious when any content has been paid for and is not bonafide editorial or journalistic content.

That's the outtake from a December 4 FTC workshop on the subject.  The newly redesigned (as of today) FTC.gov site does not give the detailed results of the workshop. But trade publications including PRWeek have covered the results.

Most interesting in the remarks from FTC Chairwoman Edith Ramirez is the proliferation of sponsored content. Citing a study from the Online Publishers Association, she noted that 73% of online publishers offer  sponsored content. In addition, she stated that 34% of advertising agencies work with clients to create sponsored content. I have read separately that the PR community is not engaged with this as much, largely because of the belief that earned media has more influence and because those in advertising are already used to paying for reach.

But the FTC's primary concern is deception of consumers. Therefore, any sponsored content must be clearly labeled as such to avoid any potential confusion between advertising and editorial content.

Some might argue that with shrinking media resources the sponsored content idea is a win-win: publishers get content that is harder to come by with fewer reporters, they get revenue, and those seeking publicity have an avenue to reach people.

To a degree that's all true. However, not every organization has the kin of budget to pursue sponsored content to scale, or even at all. Also, if PR pros and others are supplying content, in the online environment people are losing the distinction between old media, new media, and the brand journalism that is increasing via corporate and organizational blogs, online news sites, etc. It's the same as young people grabbing a TV remote and having no idea what the difference is between cable and network TV. Or, using Netflix or some other device to view a show or an episode, with no thought given to the source of the show. Content is no longer tethered to creator or carrier.

But I would add that the FTC concern for consumer deception is a good one when it comes to news, which is entirely different than entertainment content in its importance and the perception of source. As Ramirez notes, the laws already state that connections between endorsers and sellers must be disclosed. That law can have new interpretation in the context of sponsored content.

As I tell my law and ethics students, government regulatory agencies often enact rules and laws where professionals left to themselves fail to follow basic  ethical guidelines. Such is the case here. The PRSA Code of Ethics  principle of "disclosure of information" covers the idea  of making sponsored content transparent. If your professional goal is to ensure that publics are able to make fully informed decisions, you would not hide the fact that content in a publication was written and paid to be placed by a brand or an agency. If your only goal is to persuade people by any means, then you are likely to cross an ethical line.

The FTC workshop merely discussed the issue. But enforcement may come if publishers and advertising and PR professionals think only of persuasion and not of public interest.

Friday, November 15, 2013

New Book on Crisis Communications Offers Deep Practical Insights

James Lukaszewski was kind enough to send me a copy of his new book "Lukaszewski on Crisis Communication: What Your CEO Needs to Know About Reputation and Crisis Management." I was happy to receive it and having read it can strongly recommend it.

Lukaszewski is a seasoned PR consultant who has counseled CEOs of many major organizations. I remember that his workshops at national PRSA conferences are often standing-room only. He doesn't disappoint with this book either.

In a nutshell, this book is a detailed, practical, how-to guide that would be a useful reference for any PR practitioner to have handy. The table of contents is indexed for quick access to specific crisis communications information. There is also a detailed glossary of terms. The 10 chapters are replete with bullet lists of considerations, specific tasks, and other overviews. But each chapter gets into management-level strategy and the philosophy behind them, as opposed to mere tactical advice. I also appreciate the emphasis on prevention and responsiveness to all stakeholders, which is consistent with the academic literature on the subject.

Here is a quick take on the most practical contents of the book:

  • a detailed outline of what should be included in a crisis plan;
  • savvy overview of how reporters ask questions to illicit emotional quotes, and how to respond;
  • sage advice and if, when, and how to hold crisis-related news conferences;
  • the important consideration of using and responding to social media in times of crisis;
  • a very thorough explication of the tactics of activist groups, and how to respond;
  • how to handle crises that involve litigation, with a refreshing downplay of attorney as spokesperson and crisis manager in favor of a professional with actual communications education.
The book could be useful for practitioners and as a companion textbook for classes on crisis communication. I know I may require or recommend it the next time I teach a graduate course in crisis communication as a companion to the academic theoretical works on crisis communications, such as "Ongoing Crisis Communications: Planning, Managing and Responding" by Timothy Coombs, noted for his development of the Situational Crisis Communications Theory (SCCT), "Crisis Communication: A Casebook Approach" by Kathleen Fearn-Banks, or "Crisis Communication: Theory and Practice" by Alan Zaremba. 



Thursday, October 31, 2013

Twtrland Offers Useful Brand Planning and Monitoring

A representative from Twtrland, a social media analytics company, reached out to me and gave me a test drive of their services.

I'm an academic and not a brand with a huge budget for such PR service companies, so I appreciated the gesture. I took some notes for my classes, and thought I'd blog an overview of the service here.

Twtrland offers analytics for Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram accounts. All can be connected for aggregated reporting, which can lead to integrated planning. There is a free version and a pro upgrade option, similar to other analytic services.

Brands can enter their brand handle as well as various versions of their brand name to get a variety of reports:

  • Audience analysis. Data is broken down in several categories--by celebrities, power users, casual, and novice; by age and gender; by top countries and cities. I especially like the breakdown of users' skills, and the audience interests with percentages in descending order for a variety of subject areas.
  • Fan base. This section gives a quick tiled view of users avatars and profiles. You can sort by followers, recent interactions, or amplifications (retweets, etc). There is also a conversations tab to see in at-a-glance view who is talking to and engaging with your brand.
  • Monitor. In addition to key words and key people, this section allows you to enter the names of key competitors--organizations and individuals--to test your game and maybe show comparison analysis reports to bosses and clients. It's the 'share of discussion' metric for social media.
  • Outreach. This tab allows you to find influencers so that you can strategize ways to engage them. This is also where your lists can be added to do analytics within your own prescribed groups of people.
There are a lot of social media platforms, and even more third-party services to help brands work and measure their efforts in this space. Twtrland is certainly one that could be considered as an option for social media specialists, as well as for public relations pros who have social media added to their long list of traditional responsibilities.